Conversion and re-conversion were among the major factors which led to the riots in Orissa's Kandhamal district last year, a judicial commission probing the violence has said.
"Sources of the violence were deeply rooted in land disputes, conversion and re-conversion and fake certificate issues," Justice S C Mohapatra, heading the one-man panel, said in his interim report on the violence in Kandhamal, which claimed 43 lives besides damaging many houses and churches.
He, however, did not elaborate on the controversial conversions and re-conversions issue. "Suspicion among the Scheduled Tribe and Scheduled Caste inhabitants of Kandhamal is the main cause of riots with the tribals suspecting that 'Pano' dalits were capturing their land through fraudulent means," Justice Mohapatra said.
Besides the issues of land and conversion and re-conversion, Justice Mohapatra said fake certificates were another major factor that created discontent among Kandha tribals, who constitute 52 per cent of Kandhamal's population. Justice Mohapatra, who submitted the interim report on July 1, said the state government should take steps immediately to remove differences between the communities.
"I know it will take at least two years to complete the inquiry, but the interim report will help the government to make an immediate intervention," he said.
In his 28-page report, Justice Mohapatra said that most Kandha tribals were uneducated and were under the impression that quotas meant for them were being availed of by Pana dalits, who were Christians.
This was another factor behind tribal anger, he said, and suggested that the state government expedite freeing of tribal land in possession of non-tribals, take up fake certificate cases and remain vigilant to conversions and re-conversions. "Once the basic issues are addressed, the Kandhamal problem could be solved," he said.
Replying to a question, Justice Mohapatra said he had not blamed anybody for the violence in the interim report. Sources, however, said the commission which was set up on September 3 last year could fix responsibility for the violence on any organisation or government body.
In the interim report, Justice Mohapatra had not blamed any religious body or the Communist Party of India Maois, which claimed the responsibility for the killing of Vishwa Hindu Parishad leader Laxmananda Saraswati on August 23 last year. The murder of Saraswati and four of his associates had triggered large-scale violence in Kandhamal that evoked condemnation from across India and the world.